Pest control solutions

Kinetik Çevresağlığı Amb. Tar. Müh. Dan. SAN. TİC. LTD. ŞTİ.

MAJOR PESTS

BIOLOGY

BIOLOGY

The female deposits her ootheca within a few hours or up to 4 days after it is formed. It is dropped or glued with a mouth secretion to a suitable surface, usually in a crack or crevice of high relative humidity near a food source. On the average, the female will produce about 9-10 (range 6-14; maximum 90) oothecae with each containing 14-16 eggs. Developmental time (egg to adult)is greatly influenced by temperature, varying from 168-786+ days but averaging about 600 days under ordinary room conditions. During this time, they molt 10-13 times. Adult females live about 440 days (range 102-588; maximum 913) at ordinary room conditions, but at 84 degrees F/29 degrees C adult females live about 225 days (range 90-706) whereas, adult males live about 200 days (range 90-362).

Follow standard control procedures but do not forget to check the drains. For sewers, power dusting with silica gel is particularly effective.

Follow the standard control procedures but pay particular attention to damp crawl spaces, basements, and floor drains. Outside perimeter/barrier treatments are quite effective, especially when microencapsulated or wettable powder formulations are used.

· Biyolojisi

House fly

CONTROL

BIOLOGY

he house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, is a well-known cosmopolitan pest of both farm and home. This species is always found in association with humans or activities of humans. It is the most common species found on hog and poultry farms, horse stables and ranches. Not only are house flies a nuisance, but they can also transport disease-causing organisms. Excessive fly populations are not only an irritant to farm workers but, when there are nearby human habitations, a public health problem could occur.

More than 100 pathogens associated with the house fly may cause disease in humans and animals, including typhoid, cholera, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax ophthalmia and infantile diarrhea, as well as parasitic worms. Pathogenic organisms are picked up by flies from garbage, sewage and other sources of filth, and then transferred on their mouthparts, through their vomitus, feces and contaminated external body parts to human and animal food.

The more commonly used control measures for house flies are sanitation, use of traps, and insecticides, but in some instances integrated fly control has been implemented. The use of biological control in fly management is still at a relatively early stage.

 

Culex nigripalpus mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors in Turkey. They are the proven primary enzootic (normal level of virus transmission from mosquitoes to wild birds) and epidemic (unusually high level of virus transmission from mosquitoes to humans) vectors of St. Louis encephalitis SLE virus throughout the southern half of the state. In addition, they are likely involved in the transmission of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus in Florida, from Titusville north to Jacksonville and west to Pensacola.

Mosquito

CONTROL

Due to the medical significance of this species, vector surveillance, with the ultimate goal of predicting human cases of SLE virus, is of critical importance. Historically, New Jersey light traps and CDC miniature light traps have been used to monitor the abundance of Cx. nigripalpus adults. However, we have found that resting collections made with ground aspirators, provide a superior measure of Cx. nigripalpus adult populations. This is because males as well as females in all gonotrophic conditions (host seeking, blood fed, partially blood fed and gravid) are taken in aspirator collections. Due to their green color, newly emerged adults of both sexes can be identified and counted, thus providing an accurate measure of adult emergence.

BIOLOGY

LOUSE

CONTROL

BIOLOGY

Three types of lice infest humans: the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, also known as Pediculus humanus corporis; the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer; and the crab louse (or pubic louse), Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus).

Head lice and body lice are morphologically indistinguishable, although head lice are smaller than body lice. Head lice and pubic lice are highly dependent upon human body warmth and will die if separated from their host for 24 hours. Body lice are more hardy since they live on clothing and can survive if separated from human contact for up to a week without feeding.

The biggest problem in controlling head lice infestations is convincing parents, teachers and even school administrators that head lice infestations are not caused by filthy conditions. For example, one school principal denied the existence of a head lice infestation in his school, even though the wife of a University of Florida graduate student, who was a teacher at that school, confirmed that such the problem existed. The principal's denial of the problem, and his refusal for our staff to cooperate with his school nurse, prevented us from controlling the infestation and preventing its recurrence.

There are over 2,000 described species of fleas. The most common domestic flea is the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. The adult cat flea, unlike many other fleas, remains on the host. Adults require a fresh blood meal in order to reproduce.

The dog flea,
Ctenocephalides canis, appears similar to the cat flea, but is rarely found in the United States. Cat fleas are commonly found on both cats and dogs in North America, while dog fleas are found in Europe. The two species are distinguished by a slight morphological difference which is detectable only under high magnification.

FLEA

CONTROL

BIOLOGY

The female carries her ootheca until it is within 1-2 days of hatching, and then deposits it in a sheltered area/site. On the average, the female will produce about 5 oothecae (range 4-8), averaging 30-40 eggs (range 18-50) each. Developmental time (egg to adult) usually varies from 54-215 days, averaging about 103 days; under lab conditions of 80 degrees F/27 degrees C and 40% relative humidity, usually only 50-60 days are required. This means usually 3 to 4 generations per year, but up to 6. Adults live about 100-200 days (range 1-303). Established/mature German cockroach populations are typically composed of at least 75% nymphs.

The female usually deposits her ootheca within about 30 hours (range 12-120) after it is formed. It is either dropped or glued to something in a warm protected area near a food source. On the average, the female will produce about 8 (range 1-18) oothecae with each containing about 16 eggs. Developmental time (egg to adult) is influenced by temperature, varying from 206-800 days but it takes about 575 (males) and 602 (females) days at ordinary room conditions. Adult females live 34-181 days whereas, males live 112-160 days.

German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Linnaeus)

Oriental Cockroach

American Cockroach Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius)

CONTROL

Follow the standard control procedures but more frequent service may be required because of their rapid reproductive rate. At least 95% of the population must be eliminated on the initial or clean-out service, or the typical maintenance program will usually fail. Baits are particularly effective, but correct placement along junctions and/or in cracks and crevices in or near harborages is essential. Incorporating IGRs (insect growth regulators) into the service helps with long-term control. Be sure to follow label directions.

CONTROL

CONTROL

Çiyan

CONTROL

BIOLOGY

ouse centipedes (Scutigera) are common arthropods with long, flattened, segmented bodies with one pair of legs per segment. The house centipede is up to 1 1/2 inches long and has 15 pairs of very long, almost thread-like, slender legs. Each leg is encircled by dark and white bands. The body is brown to grayish-yellow and has three dark stripes on top.

Though house centipedes are found both indoors and outdoors it is the occasional one on the bathroom or bedroom wall, or the one accidentally trapped in the bathtub, sink, or lavatory that causes the most concern. However, these locations are not where they normally originate. Centipedes prefer to live in damp portions of basements, closets, bathrooms, unexcavated areas under the house and beneath the bark of firewood stored indoors. They do not come up through the drain pipes.

House centipede control consists of drying up and cleaning, as much as possible, the areas that serve as habitat and food source for centipedes. Residual insecticides can be applied to usual hiding places such as crawl spaces, dark corners in basements, baseboard cracks and crevices, openings in concrete slabs, under shelves, around stored boxes, and so forth. For more information on insecticides

In order to effectively control an infestation, fleas must be removed from the pet, the home, and the yard. Removal of fleas from the animal alone is futile. Immature fleas which have developed into adults off the animal simply jump on, causing subsequent reinfestation. Flea combs may be used to treat the pet, yet they only remove ten to sixty percent of the fleas. By shampooing the animal, the dried blood and skin flakes which provide food for the larvae are removed.

TURKISH